Is Shark Halal?

In the diverse world of culinary delights, there often arises a question of religious dietary rules – particularly in Islam where certain foods and animals are deemed ‘Halal’ or permissible. One such seafood that sparks curiosity and diverse opinions is the shark. Is it Halal or not? The question of whether sharks can be considered Halal. has sparked extensive discussions among scholars and followers of the faith.  

Yes, the shark is generally regarded as halal. In this blog post, we will discuss different scholarly viewpoints to help you gain a clear understanding of the halal status of sharks according to Islamic laws. Whether you are Muslim or non-Muslim, this post provides comprehensive information about shark meat, its benefits, potential risks, and cooking tips, along with its halal status.

Halal shark meat

Introduction to Shark Meat

Understanding Shark and its Types

Sharks belong to a category of elasmobranch fish. They are recognized by their cartilaginous skeletons, five to seven-gill slits on the sides of their heads, and pectoral fins that aren’t connected to their heads. There are over 500 species of sharks, ranging from the small dwarf lantern shark, a species of only 17 centimeters in length, to the whale shark, the largest fish, which can measure up to 12 meters. Sharks inhabit oceans worldwide and are commonly found at depths of up to 2,000 meters. They are generally not found in freshwater, except for a few exceptions like the bull shark and the river shark. Shark meat, consumed in many parts of the world, varies greatly in texture, flavor, and preparation, based on the species.

What Does Shark Taste Like | Flavor Profile and Texture?

Shark meat, a staple in some coastal and island cultures, is an intriguing and exotic food choice. Often overlooked in favor of more commonly consumed seafood, shark meat presents its own unique flavor profile and texture, which may vary greatly depending on the species of shark. Nonetheless, it remains a subject of significant controversy. Its consumption not only brings up important religious dietary questions, such as its Halal status in Islam but also touches on environmental and ethical concerns related to shark fishing practices. In the forthcoming sections, we delve into these aspects, with a particular focus on its permissibility in accordance with Islamic dietary laws.

Understanding the Halal in Islam

Halal, an Arabic term meaning ‘permissible’, forms a core tenet of Islamic dietary laws. These laws stem from specific guidelines presented in the Quran, the holy book of Islam, directing Muslims to consume foods that are wholesome, pure, and free from any component that Muslims are prohibited from consuming. Dietary restrictions are seen as a form of worship, and they also promote cleanliness, purity, and overall health. Within these regulations, certain types of meat are deemed Halal while others are Harm. The classification of marine creatures, such as sharks, within these laws is a subject of ongoing discussion and interpretation.

Is Shark Halal in Islam

Before we delve deeper into the Halal status of shark meat, it’s crucial to understand the following key concepts for halal seafood within the Islamic context.

Is Shark a Fish?

In the context of Islamic dietary laws, fish are universally accepted as Halal, as there are clear references in the Quran and Hadith supporting this. The Quran states in Surah Al-Ma’idah (5:96): “Lawful to you is game from the sea and its food as provision for you and the travelers”. This verse is often interpreted to encompass all sea creatures, including fish, as permissible or Halal. Similarly, numerous Hadiths echo this sentiment, further reinforcing the permissibility of fish consumption.

When it comes to classification, biologically speaking, sharks are indeed considered fish. They belong to a special group known as cartilaginous fish, distinguished from other fish species by their skeletal structure. Unlike most fish, which have skeletons made of bone, sharks’ skeletons are made entirely of cartilage. This makes them less dense than other fish and allows them greater mobility and flexibility in the water. Sharks breathe through gills, have fins, and live in water, which are typical characteristics of fish.

Is Shark Samak or Non-Samak?

The term “Samak” in Arabic refers to fish, and traditionally, according to Islamic dietary laws, all fish are considered halal or permissible to eat. However, the question of whether a shark is considered “Samak” can be subject to interpretation. In some Islamic schools of thought, for a sea creature to be considered halal, it must resemble a fish or have scales. Since sharks, although they are fish, lack scales and have skin, they may be considered non-Samak in these interpretations.

However, in other Islamic schools of thought, the absence of scales does not necessarily categorize a sea creature as non-Samak. This implies that sharks could still be considered permissible for consumption.

Is Shark Meat Poisonous?

Contrary to popular misconceptions, shark meat is not inherently poisonous. However, it may pose potential health risks if not properly handled and prepared. Sharks, as top predators in the marine ecosystem, can accumulate elevated levels of toxins such as mercury in their flesh through a process called bioaccumulation. Consuming shark meat with high mercury content can lead to mercury poisoning, particularly if ingested regularly or in large quantities.

Is Shark Meat Halal?

Based on the evidence we discussed above, it’s evident that sharks are halal. However, there’s still a debate among Islamic scholars. Some of them argue that sharks might not be permissible because they lack scales. To clear up this confusion and provide a comprehensive view, we’ll explore various Islamic schools of thought in the next section. This will help us understand the different perspectives on the halal status of sharks.

Is Shark Considered Halal in Islam | Different Islamic Schools of Thought

Is Shark Halal Hanafi School of Thought

The Hanafi school, one of the major Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence, only permits the consumption of fish, defined as sea creatures with scales. Therefore, under Hanafi jurisprudence, a shark is considered Halal.

Sunni Schools of Thought (Shafi’i, Maliki, and Hanbali)

The Shafi’i, Maliki, and Hanbali schools of thought, which are also part of Sunni Islam, have a broader interpretation. They consider all sea creatures, including sharks, as Halal, per the general principle outlined in the Quran that “the game of the sea is lawful unto you” (Surah Al-Ma’idah 5:96).

Is shark halal Shia School of Thought (Ja’fari)

The Ja’fari school of thought, prominent within Shia Islam, also permits the consumption of all sea creatures, including sharks. They follow the same Quranic principle as the Maliki, Shafi’i, and Hanbali schools, considering all creatures from the sea as Halal.

Darul Ifta Perspective

All scholars from the four Sunni Schools of Islamic jurisprudence concur that all varieties of fish, including sharks, are permissible for consumption. The classification of sharks within the family of fish contributes to this consensus [1].

IslamQA Perspective

According to the teachings of Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik, sharks are classified as fish, making their consumption acceptable. In contrast, Imam Shafi and Imam Ahmad view sharks as impure, therefore deeming them inedible [0].

Is Shark Haram | Exploring Additional Arguments

While a significant number of scholars and schools of thought within Islam consider shark Halal, there are opposing viewpoints that consider shark Haram. The reasons for this include:

  1. Absence of Scales: Some Islamic scholars argue that only fish with scales can be considered Halal, as per their interpretation of the Hadith and Quran. Since sharks do not have scales, they are classified as Haram under this viewpoint.
  2. Predatory Nature: Sharks, known for their predatory nature, are seen by some as harmful creatures. This interpretation believes that consuming a harmful creature goes against the principles of Halal, which emphasize health and cleanliness.
  3. Unclean Eating Habits of Sharks: Sharks are carnivorous and often consume dead sea creatures. In many interpretations of Halal, animals that eat dead animals (carrion) are considered Haram, and this viewpoint applies the same principle to sharks.
  4. Fishing Techniques: Some scholars also raise concerns about the method of catching sharks, particularly in commercial fisheries. These methods may involve using bait or lures, which are often made from non-Halal sources such as pork or other prohibited animals. This raises concerns about the purity and Halal status of shark meat obtained through these means.
  5. Doubt (Shubha): In cases where there is doubt about whether a food is Halal or Haram. Some scholars cite a Hadith that instructs Muslims to leave that which makes them doubtful. For those who find the classification of sharks uncertain or controversial, this principle might lead them to avoid consuming shark meat.

It’s essential to recognize that these interpretations can vary significantly among different communities and individuals. It’s always recommended for Muslims to seek guidance from knowledgeable scholars on matters concerning their faith.

What’s The Ruling on Eating Dead Fish in Islam?

In the context of Islamic dietary laws, the consumption of dead animals, or carrion, is generally prohibited. However, there is an exception for sea creatures. According to the majority of Islamic scholars, following the principle that “the game of the sea is lawful unto you” (Surah Al-Ma’idah 5:96), fish and other sea creatures are considered halal even if they are found dead. This is due to the understanding that it is impossible to slaughter sea creatures in the same way land animals are. Therefore, unlike land animals, sea creatures do not require a specific method of slaughter to be deemed Halal. But, as with most matters in Islamic jurisprudence, interpretations may vary among different schools of thought and among individual scholars.

Is Eating Shark Halal

Yes, all four major Islamic schools of thought, along with the Jaffri school, permit the consumption of sharks. It’s important to understand that whether a fish is considered Halal or Haram is not determined by its consumption of human flesh but by following the guidance of Allah and His Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him), as outlined in the Quran and Hadith. If you choose not to eat sharks due to personal preferences or doubts, that’s entirely your choice, but you cannot declare it as Haram.

You might also be interested in understanding whether squid is considered halal in Islamic dietary laws. Dive deeper into the ocean of halal seafood guidelines and broaden your horizon of knowledge.

Can You Eat Shark Meat

Is Shark Meat Good to Eat | Benefits of Shark Meat

Besides the religious and cultural considerations, there are certain nutritional benefits associated with consuming shark meat. Rich in protein, shark meat provides essential amino acids required for tissue repair and growth. It’s also a good source of vitamins, particularly Vitamin B12. Which plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy nerve cells and producing DNA. Additionally, shark meat is low in saturated fats, which is beneficial for maintaining a healthy heart. However, it’s worth noting that shark meat is often high in mercury, a toxic heavy metal, and consuming it in large quantities can lead to health risks. As such, it’s recommended that shark meat be consumed in moderation and that individuals be aware of local advisories and guidelines regarding its consumption.

Is Shark Meat Bad for You | Potential Risks of Shark Meat

While shark meat offers several nutritional benefits, its consumption also carries potential health risks. A key concern is the high level of mercury found in sharks, which bio-accumulates in their bodies over time. High mercury intake can lead to neurotoxic effects and damage to the cardiovascular system. Sharks also sit atop the marine food chain, which means they accumulate other toxins from the creatures they consume. Therefore, frequent consumption of shark meat may lead to the intake of these harmful substances. Furthermore, sharks are often killed using methods that lead to considerable suffering, raising ethical issues around animal welfare. Lastly, overfishing of sharks can disrupt marine ecosystems, as it removes a crucial apex predator, leading to a ripple effect on the health and balance of our oceans. Therefore, consumers need to consider these risks and implications when deciding to include shark meat in their diet.

The Socio-Cultural Implications of Consuming Shark Meat

Understanding the influence of local customs and traditions is essential when exploring the consumption of shark meat in Muslim communities. The cultural context often shapes the interpretation of religious laws, leading to diverse practices within the global Muslim community. Consumption trends can vary widely, with some communities embracing shark meat due to its availability and local significance. While others avoid it based on the interpretations of religious scholars. Furthermore, the ethical considerations related to the conservation status of sharks and the often inhumane practices associated with shark fishing may influence decisions, reflecting an intersection of faith, culture, and environmental consciousness. Thus, while Islamic jurisprudence provides a religious framework, the interpretation and application of these dietary laws are inextricably tied to local customs, traditions, and values.

How to Cook Shark Meat

Shark meat has been a part of various traditional cuisines, offering a unique taste and texture when properly prepared. Preparing shark meat for cooking requires some particular steps due to its distinct properties. It’s crucial to bleed the shark immediately after it’s caught to avoid the development of an ammonia-like taste. Further, soaking the meat in milk or a mixture of acid and salt can help neutralize this flavor. Always remember to remove the skin before cooking as it can also contribute to a strong, undesirable taste. Once these steps are taken care of, shark meat can be grilled, baked, broiled, or fried.

Recipes for Shark Meat

  1. Shark Steaks: Marinate the shark steaks in a mixture of olive oil, soy sauce, lemon juice, and your choice of herbs and spices. Grill over medium heat for about 5 minutes on each side or until the meat is opaque and flaky. Serve with a side of fresh salad or steamed vegetables.
  2. Shark Tacos: Dice the shark meat and season it with a mix of chili powder, cumin, garlic powder, and lime juice. Fry in a hot pan until cooked through. Serve in warm tortillas with shredded lettuce, chopped tomatoes, grated cheese, and a splash of your favorite salsa.
  3. Shark Curry: Saute onions, garlic, and ginger in a pan. Add curry paste, diced tomatoes, and coconut milk, and bring to a simmer. Add chunks of shark meat and cook until tender. Serve over rice with a garnish of fresh cilantro.

Please note that sustainable fishing practices and the preservation of shark species should be considered when sourcing shark meat.

Is Shark Meat Legal in the USA

In the United States, the sale and consumption of shark meat are legally permitted. However, it is regulated by both state and federal laws to protect against overfishing and the endangerment of certain sharks species. The primary law responsible for overseeing the management of marine fisheries in the federal waters of the United States is the Magnuson-Stevens Act. This law plays a pivotal role in ensuring the sustainability of sharks populations. Additionally, laws such as the Shark Finning Prohibition Act of 2000 and the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 make it illegal to practice finning, which involves removing a shark’s fins and discarding the body at sea.

Despite these regulations, the enforcement and effectiveness of these laws are often subjects of debate and scrutiny. It’s also worth noting that while the consumption of shark meat is legal, many environmental and health concerns surround it owing to the high levels of mercury often found in shark meat and the critical role sharks play in maintaining the health of marine ecosystems.


Is shark considered Halal?

Yes, according to many Islamic scholars and interpretations, shark is considered Halal and permissible to eat.

Why a shark is considered Halal in Islam?

Shark is considered Halal in Islam because it is a sea creature. According to general Islamic dietary laws, all sea creatures are permissible to eat.

Do the halal practices for shark meat vary among different Islamic communities?

Yes, halal practices for sharks meat can vary among different Islamic communities

Can Muslims consume shark meat from non-Muslim countries?

Yes, Muslims can consume its meat from non-Muslim countries as long as it meets the criteria of halal.


The consumption of shark meat is a complex issue, touching on religious, cultural, ethical, and environmental aspects. From a religious viewpoint, consumption may be deemed permissible under certain interpretations of Islamic law. Additionally, shark meat provides several benefits like high protein and vitamin B12 content. It also carries potential health risks due to high mercury levels. Ethically and environmentally, the methods of shark fishing and the effects of overfishing on marine ecosystems pose significant concerns. Lastly, the taste and quality of the meat can be greatly influenced by how it is prepared and cooked. Therefore, individuals should consider all these factors and make informed decisions about including sharks meat in their diet. So, always keeping in mind the importance of sustainable and ethical practices.

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